Young French driver in her Deux Chevaux (2CV)

Her nicknames range from affectionate (Deux chevaux; Deux pattes, Two Paws; DeucheDedeuche;) to dismissive and derogatory, especially when the car was first launched (Tin Snail; Umbrella on Wheels; Old Tin Can; Le Canard, the Ugly Duckling.)

No matter. 72 years after the first prototype was manufactured in France by Citroën; 21 years after the last model came out of a Portuguese production line, la 2 CV remains one of the most recognized, respected, revolutionary cars in the world. A French motoring icon.

2CV “Charleston”: The first bi-colored model, 
inspired by the Art Deco movement (1979-1981)

To me, and to many people the world over, la Deux Chevaux (2CV) is, quite simply, a happy car. Une voiture sympa (sympathique.) You know the type: You see one drive by (rarely, these days) and you start smiling, because you can’t help it. Come to think of it, English bulldogs do that for me as well. No obvious connection to la 2CV, but if you look closer, there are similarities. Neither of them (the dog or the old car) are known for their good looks. In French, both would be referred to as “rond” (round) because of their unusual shape. They are slow, but they do not care. They keep going and they will get there, you can be certain of it, because they are stronger than they look.

Happy dog

The Citroën Deux Chevaux (the 2CV, as it known internationally) was born in France a few years before WWII. Michelin, the French tyre manufacturer had just purchased Citroën, the car manufacturing company. In the 1930s, French population was mainly rural. Farmers, country doctors, rural clergy, and tradespeople could not afford to buy cars, but they needed to travel large distances to make a living. A survey conducted by Citroën revealed that there was a market for an economically-produced and affordable car. Specifications in an early design brief were, like the car they were going to generate, quite surprising. The document mentioned that the car should enable four peasants to drive 220 lb of farm goods to market at 37mph, in clogs, and across muddy unpaved roads if necessary. The roof had to be high enough, enabling driver and passengers to ride while wearing their Sunday hats to church! The car’s fuel consumption would average 90-95mpg. Above all, it could drive across a ploughed field without breaking the eggs it was carrying.

The rustic 2CV was always at home in the French countryside

An important part of the original specifications: The car had to stay within the two horsepower fiscal bracket to remain affordable.  This explains the future name, “La Deux Chevaux” (literally two tax-horsepower.) The original engine itself had an eight horsepower capacity.

In the late 1930s, the first prototype was named “T.P.V.” (Toute Petite Voiture, or Very Small Car) and production started in absolute secrecy in a small town West of Paris. Citroën produced  250 units and planned to launch the car during the October 1939 Car Show in Paris, but History interfered.

An early prototype boasts a minimalist look

In September 1939, France declared war on Germany following the invasion of Poland by Hitler’s troops. World War II had started.

The Citroën management team involved in the project was determined to keep the new car away from the German government, and they did, an amazing feat since France was occupied for most of the war. The TPV construction line was requisitioned. Citroën asked that all prototypes be dismantled. Several survived (One model was tucked away in the Citroën office’s basement near the Paris Opéra house.) Others were hidden by rebellious Citroën workers in the French countryside, buried deep inside barns. Everyone involved claimed the cars had been lost, even after the war ended. Yet, three original prototypes were discovered in 1995 and had to be removed from a barn with special lifting equipment. The legend claims that the Germans were intent on getting their hands on the TPV throughout the war. At some point, they offered Citroën an opportunity to preview the German car that would become the “Volkswagen,” (the people’s car,) in exchange for the plans of the French car. To no avail.

Early prototypes
Three prototypes “dug out” of a barn in 1995

Citroën secretly continued working on the TPV throughout the war and improvements were made. A second headlight was installed in 1942 (the car, with one original headlight, had been nicknamed: “The Cyclop”.)

After the Liberation, it took Citroën a few more years to finalize a version that could be introduced to the industry and the French public. The official launch date was the Paris Car Show in October 1948.

The public was intrigued and showed up en masse, but the professional press was understandably harsh. Journalists were unimpressed with the car’s minimalist look: the serrated hood that looked like a cheese grater; the manual starter; the drab grey color (the only color offered for the next few years;) the deceptively simple engineering (using a “lawn-mower engine,” held together by four screws;) open flap side windows; scrawny tires, a roll back canvas roof. With its mattress-like suspension and hammock seats, la 2CV looked like a “four-wheeled sofa covered by an umbrella.”

Car Show 1948: The French President discovers the 2CV
One of the prototypes unveiled at the 1948 Car Show
The French welcome the 2CV
 The 2 CV’s Spartan interior

But the press was wrong. The 2CV became an instant hit and a great commercial success for Citroën in war-starved France where local populations needed an affordable and reliable vehicle to make a living. Within a few months, demand built up to such levels that production could not keep up. Soon, there was a 5-year waiting list to get a brand-new 2CV. Used models were even more expensive because they were available immediately. Production was upgraded from 4 cars a day in 1949 to 400 units per day in 1950!

2CV production facility in Levallois-Perret, Paris
Production line – Citroën factory in the 1960s

Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, the rustic 2CV took over the French countryside, a coveted and prized possession for rural populations. Durable, the 2CV proved almost indestructible. Slow, funny-looking, stripped to basics, it got you there, in a long bouncy ride (maximum speed was 40mph.)

Standard blue model

As the French economy recovered from the war and the country prospered, drivers started trading up. La Deuche became the family’s second car, or “la voiture de Madame” (Madam’s car) as it was known. From a utilitarian vehicle, the 2CV switched to the family’s “fun” car and was on its way to becoming a French icon. People rode the 2CV to picnics (the removable backseat meant one could enjoy lunch in style without getting wet.) Others got married in their beloved “Deuche.” To many, the 2CV was more than a car: it was a way of life, back in the days when people took the time to slow down, and to look around when they traveled.

Book celebrating the 2CV’s 60th anniversary

Some were so attached to their car it stayed in the family forever, the perfect hand-me down vehicle. Even though just five million 2CV were produced over the car’s long 42 year career, most 2CVs had several owners. Some say this led in part to the 2CV’s downfall. It was so economical and easy to maintain that it was never profitable enough. After all, the revolutionary car had been designed so owners could make most repairs themselves.

Deux Chevaux en panne. Broken down 2CV (1964)

Over the years, the original body design remained unchanged but technical improvements (and new, brighter colors,) were introduced. Thirty different models were launched, including the  popular fourgonette (van) and the Sahara model, a 4×4 used in rallies around the world.

The popular 2CV fourgonnette 
Custom Sahara model during a 2007 French rally 
A custom, amped-up Sahara model (with two engines!)
Paris-Dakar rally, 1980s

Sales peaked in 1966, then the 2CV’s slow decline began. The venerable car was too minimalist, too slow for France’s fast-growing post-industrial society. It came back in favor following the 1974 oil crisis, but soon after, its status changed forever: A former functional form of transport, it became a lifestyle statement, and as sales dwindled further, a prized item for collectors worldwide.

Popular culture helped ensure French (and foreign audiences) would remember the 2CV. Below, a compilation of famous scenes from the popular 1960s “Gendarme de St Tropez” movie series with Louis de Funès -another French icon!- Behold the amazing, indestructible 2CV in action!

In 1981, a customized Deuche made a noted appearance in “For your Eyes Only,” a James Bond movie starring Roger Moore and Carole Bouquet. A limited 500-unit series of the yellow Deuche was released that year, complete with a set of stickers imitating bullet holes.

For your Eyes Only: La Deuche in action!
“My name is Bond, James Bond, and my other car is a Deuche!”
La Deuche arrives Place Vendôme, Paris, for the movie release

Even the respected French high-fashion house Hermès was happy to celebrate the 2CV’s 60th anniversary at the Paris Car Show in 2008. Look at the luxury version of the rustic car. More photos and details here. Superbe!

Deux Chevaux refitted by Hermès

Citroën pulled the plug on the 2CV production in 1990. Fans were outraged. After all, hadn’t the company always been embarrassed by La Deuche’s simple image, a far cry from the high-tech, fast cars manufactured in the 1990s? As previously mentioned, the little car just was not profitable enough. To make things worse, it no longer met emission laws or safety regulations in other European countries. In short, the iconic car’s long career was coming to an end.

So long, la Deuche! 

Fans need not have worried. La Deuche‘s glory days are not over. There are over 300 active clubs worldwide devoted to the 2CV. There are raids and rallies. Reunions. TV specials. Books and press articles. There are toys, and coveted memorabilia hard to find even on Ebay. No, La Deuche is not ready to say good-bye quite yet. She still rides (slowly) on the French country roads she once ruled. She still sleeps near the farms where a handful of visionary factory workers once hid her from the Occupant’s prying eyes. She still makes us all smile and wave back when we meet her, old and banged up, or beautifully restored by a collector, in small French towns. If nothing else, she remains a great conversation piece. I have never met a Deuche I did not like. My uncle, who passed recently, owned one. I am grateful to him for taking me along so I know what riding in a Deuche felt like.

My uncle’s Deuche is long gone,
but I was thrilled to find this t-shirt at the Sarlat outdoor market last July

Beyond time, beyond fashion, La Deux Chevaux remains quintessentially French, like the Eiffel Tower, or le béret. She may not be the prettiest girl on the block, but she exudes Gallic charm and personality. No, La Deuche is not ready to say goodbye quite yet. Neither are we.

2CV gathering, France
The list of All Things French…
starts with “une vieille Deuche” (an old 2CV)

A bientôt.

More info about la Deux Chevaux:

The iconic French car has a huge following in Europe and other countries. Here is an article about a recent gathering of 6,000 2CV in France.

There are 300 2CV clubs worldwide. The 2CV Club of Great Britain is one of the best. They even have their own magazine!

My favorite documentary was produced by the BBC for the 2CV’s 60th anniversary. This short film includes cool footage of the original TPV prototype and many other more recent models.

The most complete website is in French. Great archive pictures, old ads on: “La 2CV: Une légende

Finally,  Restored 2CVs are available worldwide. I found this organization near Seattle. I have a big birthday coming up. What if??? Mmmmmm…

Véronique - France with Véro
Véronique of France with Véro

Véronique of France with Véro

Vero shares her homeland weekly on social media with virtual tours, photo essays, live events and other publications at France with Vero. Learn more.

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  1. Olga on September 19, 2011 at 9:43 am

    This is clearly a special car you’ve described in your post. Maybe it’s not profitable anymore, but there is something charismatic about it. No wonder there are so many fan clubs. Great post!

  2. Sandy on September 19, 2011 at 11:24 am

    I agree w/ Olga! My mom had one of these when I was young. It was kind of embarrassing for me because the car would swing back and forth.=)

  3. Virginia on September 19, 2011 at 2:48 pm

    After reading all the hard work you put in to a blog post, I’m ashamed of my meager photo a day! I love these cars too and have posted a few on my blog. You’re right, impossible not to smile! VPS Thanks again for the translation help today!

  4. winterludes on September 19, 2011 at 11:24 pm

    aaaaaarghhhhh, je n’avais jamais vu ça, une 2-chevaux à pédales. quand je pense qu’on m’avait offert une vulgaire porsche rouge tellement convenue…

  5. g on September 19, 2011 at 5:44 pm

    V-i have waited for this post for F-O-R-E-V-E-R!i have been in love with them since i first laid eyes on one back in 1981…what is that called -a coup de foudre- well that is exactly what i felt -lightening bolts- and in the summer of that same year i rode in one ,laughing with great excitment and happiness,promising myself that someday i will own one. that day has not yet arrived…oh but it is coming! THANKS FOR ANOTHER TOTALLY AWESOME POST! hope all is well with you!!-g

  6. Dash on September 20, 2011 at 11:40 am

    Another fascinating post Veronique, I love them, we don’t see very many of them anymore, the originals are getting rarer. I saw a lovely green and cream two toned one though in Sanary, complete with flowers, had obviously just been used for a wedding, am going to post the photo at some point.

  7. Olga on September 20, 2011 at 3:55 pm

    It is me again 🙂 I have something for you in my latest post.

  8. Bienvenue chez French Girl in Seattle... on September 20, 2011 at 5:42 pm

    — Olga — Agreed. La Deux Chevaux practically INVENTED the word charisma ;-).– Sandy — I bet there were other kids or teenagers who were very embarrassed when their parents drove them to school in one of these cuties!– Virginia — I HAVE to do research and write interesting posts since I can’t take pictures as great as yours! — g — I hope you find la Deux Chevaux of your dreams soon. Did you check out that last link at the end of the post? They have a couple of good ones for sale…– Winterludes — Tres cool, la Deux Pattes a pedale, n’est-ce-pas?– Dash — Welcome back. I can’t wait to see your photos of the cute Sanary Deuche!– Olga — Thank you for thinking about me. This is my first blogger award. I will try and make you proud 😉

  9. kimberly on September 20, 2011 at 9:23 pm

    You *know* that is my favorite voiture! If only I could get my hands on one here!K.

  10. L'Aussie on September 21, 2011 at 12:52 am

    Bonjour! This was a stupendous post. Loved the pics, especially the wedding car! My husband and I had a classic Citroen for a couple of years when we lived in New Zealand (at that time you could hardly buy a modern car over there!) We still cry about not keeping it! It was gorgeous.I’ll let Monsieur Aussie see this post of yours just to make him drool.Letting you know I’ve posted some cool pics of the Sahara Desert here: http://laussiestravelblog.blogspot.comand more pics of France on http://pichetsinparis.blogspot.comI hope you can visit.A bientotDenise

  11. g on September 21, 2011 at 6:43 am

    v-yup…. visit all your links and suggestions..including other bloggers who comment. red is my favorite color…so that first car peut-etre…love the old fiat 500 too “the lady bug”, an itialian friend told me getting the new re-issue mainly for the shore. we , meaning my brothers and sister, grew up driving a 67 mustang….i think that is where my love for old cars comes from…but something about the deux chevaux makes me smile from ear to ear. v -i really do adore your blog….g

  12. Pierre BOYER on September 21, 2011 at 10:31 pm

    C’est bien une voiture de légende !Merci pour cet hommage à cette petite française si sympathique…Pierre

  13. Bienvenue chez French Girl in Seattle... on September 22, 2011 at 10:48 am

    — Kimberly — You CAN get one here. Check out the last link in the post! There are a couple for sale around Seattle. — L’Aussie — Loved your pictures and left a comment on your blog. If Monsieur Aussie still has a pic of his old 2 CV, I would love to see it ;-)– g — Welcome back, chère amie. It’s perfect then. You can buy the red one, and I will go for the beige one (I find it very elegant.) How smashing we would look in our “Deuches” — You do realize they would not go as fast as your old Mustang 67, though?!– Pierre — Merci de cette visite. C’était un réel plaisir de passer du temps avec la Deux Chevaux!

  14. Jennifer Fabulous on September 22, 2011 at 11:12 am

    I always learn something new from your blog and I love it! :)This car is incredibly fabulous. It looks familiar to me, but I can’t tell if it is because the design is so nostalgic, or perhaps I have seen one in a film…I love the Hermes one the best. Hehe.I don’t blame families for keeping this car in the family for generations. It is not only a beautiful keepsake, but it seems like a part of history, which one should keep. Plus, it seems very high-quality, like a car that would last a long time.Such a shame that it didn’t last. Good things never do.

  15. DeeBee L. on September 22, 2011 at 11:35 pm

    A brilliant post! The Dedeuche is a legendary, “incontournable” car, and I am so happy that after years of oblivion it is making a come-back in France as more and more collectors re-discovered its “simple and humble beauty”! A pity, though, that you should need a mortgage to buy a car that was supposed to be an “economical” one! :DThank you for such a detailed and interesting article.Merci d’avoir visiter mon blog. Je vais te suuivre aussi car j’adore les blogs de qualite comme le tien! Bonne journee 🙂

  16. Bienvenue chez French Girl in Seattle... on September 23, 2011 at 7:49 am

    — Jennifer Fabulous — Always my pleasure to find you here. Of course you love the Hermès 2CV. I wonder what has happened to it? I can’t imagine they sold it because if they did, the price must have been astronomical!– DeeBee L. — Welcome chez French Girl. Love your blog too and will visit again later. There is a ton of good info there. Reviens quand tu veux! V.

  17. malyss on September 23, 2011 at 9:30 am

    Quel joli poste, plein de nostalgie et de bons souvenirs pour nous, et surement tres instructif pour nos amis americains. Bienvenue sur mon blog, j’espère que la visite vous rappellera de bons souvenirs de vacances!

  18. Owen on September 23, 2011 at 4:08 pm

    Hi Veronique, I left a comment but I think it must have disappeared… but said something to the effect that your wonderfully long and thoroughly researched posts really amaze me, you go to great lengths to give us plenty of info and photos to sink our teeth into… Ah, the belle deuche, they certainly captivate my attention when I see one go by… with their trademark noise and sweeping curves…Just in case : a great weekend… oh, and now I see where you pasted the comments text… Thanks so much !

  19. Catherine on September 23, 2011 at 10:10 am

    yes I agree it is such an immediately recognisable icon of France – just as the VW taxi is in Mexico City – although they are in the act of disappearing right now – wonderfully informative post, and such great shots – love the wedding shot…Greetings from the Riviera…

  20. Bienvenue chez French Girl in Seattle... on September 23, 2011 at 9:18 pm

    — Malyss — Merci beaucoup! Quelque chose me dit que je te rendrai visite très souvent… — Catherine — So, life is still good in Nice? Lucky, lucky girl.– Owen — Bonjour l’ami. Thank you for your comment (you, of all people, know comments mean a lot to us bloggers 😉 Loved your post on la Deuche. Thank you for sending me the link!

  21. Castles Crowns and Cottages on September 24, 2011 at 3:44 am

    Bonjour ma belle Véronique!!!SARLAT…j’ai remarqué cette photo que tu a mentionnée au sujet de mon village préférée dans La Dordogne. Quel bon souvenir pour mon mari et moi….la cuisine, la meilleure! Et merci bien ma chère pour tes mots de tendresse. C’est vrai, n’est-ce pas, que ce monde de bloggeuses et vraiment “FÉERIQUE” et lorsqu’on se rencontre, on crois qu’il y a un pouvoir de l’amitié. Mais quand on partarge les passions de la vie, ÇA C’EST VIVRE!!Je voudrais avoir une voiture comme celle-çi: petite, rare, jolie et une qui économise!Je te souhaite un week end plein de rêves et amour…Anita

  22. Fabien on September 24, 2011 at 7:45 am

    Je découvre votre blog par l’intermédiaire de celui de Malyss, superbe occasion de lire de l’anglais et de redécouvrir des coins de France vus d’ailleurs ou la Deuche comme icône nationale.

  23. Mariette's Back to Basics on September 26, 2011 at 12:57 pm

    Dearest Véronique,Oh, what a fun to watch the video! We had lots of 2CV in The Netherlands and one of my colleagues had one in the 70s. So I rode in them too. It is quite a part of French history.Love to you,Mariette

  24. on May 30, 2012 at 1:35 pm

    I think all your fans are pleased to see you get an award that is well deserved. Especially since you are so good at lauding other writers. I’d give something to hear your acceptance speech; you are too humble by half. Congratulations. bullet hole decals

  25. martinealison on April 29, 2013 at 7:16 pm

    Moi aussi j’ai eu ma deudeuche !… Ce fut ma première voiture ! Je lui caressais le volant dans les côtes et je lui disais allez titine il faut avancer !
    Gros bisous

  26. maitecha on February 8, 2015 at 1:38 pm

    Have so many fun memories of the 2CV on summers in France in my teens. Later we had a Peugeot 604 in the US and although she was malade quite often, it is still my favorite car we ever had.

  27. Boo Long on August 28, 2017 at 7:41 am

    Great article. Cheers!
    By the way, as far as I know the first production two-colour 2CV was the orange and white 2CV Spot of 1976.

  28. W de L on April 5, 2021 at 12:01 pm

    Superb article, on the deudeuche. A piece de resistance indeed as well as a sweet treat.
    Thank you for such a great job in popularizing the lovely french culture.
    Elegance, acuracy and humorous charm at their best.
    One question out of curiosity:
    Why did you caracterize french society of the 1930’s as mostly rural?

    Warm regards,

    • French Girl in Seattle on April 5, 2021 at 12:55 pm

      Bonjour. Thank you for stopping by and for the kind words. To answer your question, France lagged behind other countries after WWI and was mostly rural until the 1930s. “L’exode rural” (rural exodus) mostly happened during “les 30 Glorieuses,” 30 years of economic prosperity that started after WWII once France bounced back in the post-war years. — At least that’s what I’ve always heard. A bientôt.

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